Before creating a blockchain, factors like governance, interoperability, upgradeability, or even the blockchain trilemma—where one “aspect” of decentralization, security, or scalability must be sacrificed to accommodate the other two—must be considered. To address these issues, the substrate is the ideal way to create a customized blockchain tailored for particular use cases. It is a perfect choice for developers who want to create an interoperable, customizable blockchain, and easy to upgrade over time. It is an excellent fit for cutting-edge and innovative blockchains. Today, let us understand Substrate Framework 101 for amateurs through this article.

What is Substrate?

The Substrate is a Software Development Kit (SDK) that gives programmers access to the core elements of each blockchain to build a protocol that is both like other blockchains and different from them.

The similarities stem from shared blockchain elements such as storage, consensus, and cryptography. The Substrate provides a framework for such common characteristics, allowing you to blend or modify them to fit the needs of your project. It enables the development of a chain far beyond what is possible for others.

Substrate Framework 101 for amateurs

The Substrate is a blockchain framework that allows users to make chains faster, cheaper, easier, and safer.

Use cases of substrate framework

The use cases for the substrate framework vary. It facilitates developers’ work by providing a suitable environment for developing blockchain-based applications. The following are the most common substrate applications:

Custom blockchains

The substrate is a blockchain framework for creating customized blockchains that can run independently. It does not require external technology and is the quickest and easiest way to launch a blockchain. The developer can handle the fundamental components, such as networking, data layer, transaction queue, consensus, and so on, when using the substrate. Furthermore, your blockchain project can be upgraded over time by utilizing a pallet that meets your requirements.


One of the essential substrate use cases is the creation of parachains. Parachains are crucial in the Polkadot ecosystem because they run parallel to the relay chain and take advantage of its benefits, such as payment settlements and shared security. The architecture of parachains allows for faster transactions at a lower cost while maintaining user data privacy.

Anyone can use the substrate to deploy a parachain tailored to a specific use case. Although it can be built with other software and tools, the substrate makes the entire process easier.


Pallets, domain-specific runtime modules, allow us to create a modular design. Pallets can be thought of as discrete pieces of logic that define the capabilities of your blockchain. Our runtime can be expanded to include more pallets, and each performs specific tasks that support the blockchain’s business needs.

There are several pre-built pallets available on the substrate developer’s website. However, if it does not meet your needs, you can design a custom pallet for a substrate runtime using macros from the FRAME programming environment.

Cross-chain Bridges

To transfer tokens or other digital assets, smart contract events or instructions, or even data between blockchains, users must use a cross-chain bridge, a collection of adequately designed code that includes smart contracts. A cross-chain bridge ensures that two chains can continue to work safely together despite having different protocols, laws, governance structures, etc.

One of the significant substrate use cases is the construction of cross-chain bridges. You can use substrate to build a cross-chain bridge that connects your blockchain application to any other blockchain network, as well as the Polkadot network, allowing you to reap the full benefits of relay chain and parachain. It can bring true interoperability to your network, allowing users to transfer assets, data, and more between chains, increasing the value of your asset.


Substrate Framework 101 for amateurs

Parathreads extend the parachain concept, making it easier to reap the benefits of shared security and connectivity. Polkadot is now more accessible to projects that may lack the resources to obtain a dedicated parachain slot. It offers the opportunity to become a parachain if their application requires high throughput. Any development team can gain access to the relay chain and use parathreads to bootstrap their application.

Relay Chain

The relay chain is the main chain of the Polkadot network constructed with the substrate. It is in charge of network security, consensus, and cross-chain interoperability. All parachains are linked to the relay chain and benefit from it.

You can begin your Polkadot-like relay chain with the substrate. Substrate tutorials with various templates are available to anyone. However, the available templates may need to be more flexible for your use case, in which case you can either build one on your own or approach a substrate development company that can help you.


Substrate streamlines blockchain development by eliminating technical complexities. With WASM, it is open-source, popular, highly customizable, and flexible, allowing changes to the blockchain logic for future upgrades. As a result, it enables developers to create interoperable blockchains tailored to specific use cases without cloning another general-purpose smart contract blockchain, encouraging creativity and innovation. Contact SmartOSC if you need help with blockchain development services.

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